The 40-year-old Northern Peruvian Pipeline has spilled oil into remote rivers three times so far in 2016. Mongabay visited sites affected by two spills that occurred this winter and found oil-coated fields and residents concerned about the safety of the crops and river fish they depend on. Advocates are pushing for more studies into long-term health effects from the oil contamination. Meanwhile, the Peruvian government has sanctioned the state-owned company responsible for the pipeline and fired its president. On June 24, reports surfaced that once again the Northern Peruvian Pipeline was leaking oil into Peru’s Marañon River. It was the pipeline’s third major spill this year, after one on January 25 along the Chiriaco River in the region of Amazonas (called the Chiriaco spill) and another on February 3 near the Morona River in the region of Loreto (called the Morona spill). The 40-year-old pipeline has suffered at least 20 spills in the past 5 years alone. The pipeline, which snakes over 530 miles across the country, belongs to Petroperú, Peru’s state-sponsored oil company. The company’s cleanup efforts for the three recent spills have focused on mitigating the long-term environmental impacts of the oil. But the repercussions for the 8,000-plus mostly indigenous people affected by the spills, whose livelihoods depend on the rivers and land, appear likely to linger. Map shows approximate locations of the three spills in 2016 on the Northern Peruvian Pipeline. Courtesy of Google Earth and Google Maps. The government and Petroperú have delivered clean water, cooking oil, and rice to affected communities, but advocacy groups complain that the response has been insufficient. And while Petroperú and local branches of the Ministry of Health conducted basic health assessments and offered emergency health services, community members and indigenous rights advocates report that health providers arrived almost a month after the Chiriaco and Morona spills and that services were not offered to the majority of communities affected. Advocates contend that the neglect is part of a larger problem in which indigenous communities are often left devastated and unsupported in the wake of environmental disasters, their recovery slowed by systemic inequality. In late May, before the latest spill, Mongabay visited the area affected by the January 25 Chiriaco spill as Petroperú was finishing a massive cleanup procedure near the town of Chiriaco. Of this year’s three spills, this one was the biggest. Three thousand barrels of crude oil flowed into the Chiriaco River, and from there into the Marañon River, a tributary of the Amazon. It affected some 3,900 residents in at least 22 communities, according to the Institute of Legal Defense (IDL), a Peruvian advocacy group that has taken up the communities’ cause.