ATBC warns about canal’s impact on water security and indigenous people
A volcanic island rises from Lake Nicaragua. Photo by Aaron Escobar/Creative Commons 2.0
The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC)—the world’s largest association of tropical biologists and conservationists—has advised Nicaragua to halt its ambitious plan to build a massive canal across the country. The ATBC warns that the Chinese-backed canal, also known as the Gran Canal, will have devastating impacts on Nicaragua’s water security, its forests and wildlife, and local people.
“The Canal and its sub-projects…will result in the excavation of 278 kilometers of land, lake and rivers, cutting through pristine rainforest and the largest drinking-water reservoir in Central America,” reads the group’s statement.
If built, the project would rival the Panama canal: it will be four times as long as well as wider and deeper than its southern cousin. Pushed by telecommunications millionaire, Wang Jing, the $40 billion project would be run by the newly-formed Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Company (HKND Group). The Nicaragua government has given the HKND Group a 50 year concession over the canal with a chance to renew it another 50 years.
The Nicaraguan government argues that the canal will drastically boost the country’s economy—the second poorest in the Western Hemisphere—boasting it will lift 400,000 people out of poverty by 2018. But environmentalists and indigenous rights groups have been warned that it could be an unmitigated disaster.
Approximate canal route across southern Nicaragua, including Lake Nicaragua. Image from Global Forest Watch. Click to enlarge.
Passing through numerous protected areas—and impacting an estimated 400,000 hectares of land—the ATBC said the canal will cut the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in half. This mega-wildlife corridor, made up of various types of protected areas, connects biodiversity across eight countries in Central America, including Nicaragua.
“The canal and its infrastructure will create a significant dispersal barrier for plants and animals,” said the ATBC in a statement.
Moreover, the construction of the canal could lead to a water crisis in the already-impoverished country, according to the association. As proposed, the canal will pass through Nicaragua’s largest lake—Lake Cocibolca or Lake Nicaragua—via a massive trench dug through the bottom of the lake, requiring the removal of over a billion tons of sediment.
“As the region’s largest fresh water reservoir, with enormous and long-term strategic value, such changes [to Lake Cocibolca] will have severe and potentially irreversible impacts on the ecology of the lake, especially in the context of a changing climate and dwindling fresh water resources,” the ATBC said. “Lake Cocibolca is also vital for regional food security and is instrumental to meeting future development and agricultural needs in the semiarid and highly populated Pacific slope of Central America.”
Forest loss across Nicaragua from 2001-2013. Experts predict that the building of the Gran Canal will exacerbate deforestation considerably in the country. Data from Global Forest Watch. Click to enlarge.
The group also warns that oil spills from massive transoceanic ships passing through the canal daily will further degrade the country’s ability to supply adequate freshwater to its populace. Nicaragua is already rated one of the least water secure countries in the world.
Finally, the canal is also set to displace local and indigenous people across its nearly 300 kilometer path. Given this, the ATBC, attests that “the development of the Canal violates the Nicaraguan Constitution and its fundamental principles…which recognize and guarantee the inalienability of indigenous’ and afro-descendants’ lands, which cannot be sold, donated nor leased.”
Experts have estimated that at least nine indigenous and Afro-Nicaraguans communities will face removal if the canal is built.
ATBC suggests that the Nicaraguan Government put the canal on ice while allowing the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and UNESCO to conduct “a thorough, transparent and independent scientific review of the long term environmental and social consequences” of the monster project.
“The speakers for the canal concessionary have publicly expressed a ‘hope’ that this project will immediately rocket Nicaragua out of poverty and even into double-digit annual economic growth, with abundant training and job opportunities for Nicaraguans,” Jorge Huete-Perez, the founder and director of the Molecular Biology Center at the University of Central America, told mongabay.com in August. “But unfortunately they have never shown any data to back these claims, instead they ask for people to have ‘faith.’ But as our history has shown [some] individuals may become wealthy at the expense of the country’s natural resources while the vast majority can only become poorer.”
A canal across Nicaragua has been the ambition of wealthy and powerful nations for centuries beginning with the U.S., which almost built it instead of the Panama Canal. Today, it’s a Chinese company that’s pushing for the Gran Canal. This is from an old German-language publication, showing a proposed route for the canal that is very similar to the one chosen by HKND. Photo by: The British Library.
The Gran Canal: will Nicaragua’s big bet create prosperity or environmental ruin?
(08/27/2014) A hundred years ago, the Panama Canal reshaped global geography. Now a new project, spearheaded by a media-shy Chinese millionaire, wants to build a 278-kilometer canal through Nicaragua. While the government argues the mega-project will change the country’s dire economic outlook overnight, critics contend it will cause undue environmental damage, upend numerous communities, and do little to help local people.
What makes the jaguar the ultimate survivor? New books highlights mega-predator’s remarkable past and precarious future
(10/02/2014) For thousands of years the jaguar was a God, then it was vermin to be destroyed, and today it is the inspiration for arguably the most ambitious conservation effort on the planet. A new book by renowned big cat conservationist, Alan Rabinowitz, tells this remarkable story from the jaguar’s evolutionary origins in Asia to its re-emergence today as a cultural and ecological symbol.
‘Natural Reserves’ no more: illegal colonists deforest huge portions of Nicaraguan protected areas
(08/13/2014) In southeastern Nicaragua, abutting the coastal Caribbean town of Bluefields, lie two nature reserves – Cerro Silva and Punta Gorda – that are embroiled in a bitter battle for survival against the speedily encroaching agricultural frontier. The forest is all but decimated here, with disconnected patches whose very existence rests precariously in the hands of its occupiers – both legal and illegal.
An untapped resource: new study finds local people may trump scientists at biodiversity surveys
(08/12/2014) Figuring out what species live in a given area is important to the determination of its conservation importance. Traditionally, these biodiversity assessments have been done directly by scientists via surveys, which can be very time-intensive and expensive. However, a new study found that interviewing people in local communities who are familiar with the species of their regions could be just as effective – and much cheaper.
Cocaine: the new face of deforestation in Central America
(03/11/2014) In 2006, Mexico intensified its security strategy, forming an inhospitable environment for drug trafficking organizations (also known as DTOs) within the nation. The drug cartels responded by creating new trade routes along the border of Guatemala and Honduras. Soon shipments of cocaine from South America began to flow through the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC). This multi-national swathe of forest, encompassing several national parks and protected areas, was originally created to protect endangered species, such as Baird’s Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and jaguar (Panthera onca), as well as the world’s second largest coral reef. Today, its future hinges on the world’s drug producers and consumers.
Nicaragua Canal could cause ecological disaster, warn experts
(02/20/2014) Nicaragua’s plans for a canal linking the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans could trigger an environmental disaster through habitat destruction and alteration, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and sedimentation, warns a commentary published in this week’s issue of Nature.
Tapirs, drug-trafficking, and eco-police: practicing conservation amidst chaos in Nicaragua
(10/10/2013) Nicaragua is a nation still suffering from deep poverty, a free-flowing drug trade, and festering war-wounds after decades of internecine fighting. However, like any country that has been largely defined by its conflicts, Nicaragua possesses surprises that overturn conventional wisdom. Not the least of which is that the Central American country is still home to big, stunning species, including jaguars, giant anteaters, pumas, and the nation’s heaviest animal, the Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii). Still, not surprisingly given the nation’s instability, most conservationists have avoided Nicaragua. But tapir-expert Christopher Jordan, who has worked in the country for over four years, says he wouldn’t have it any other way.
Central America’s largest forest under siege by colonists
(05/06/2013) In the last four years, invading land speculators and peasants have destroyed 150,000 hectares (370,000 acres) of rainforest in Nicaragua’s Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, according to the Mayangna and Miskito indigenous peoples who call this forest home. Although Nicaragua recognized the land rights of the indigenous people in 2007, the tribes say the government has not done near-enough to keep illegal settlers out despite recent eviction efforts.