July 05, 2010
An interview with David Ainley.
"[The] Ross Sea is the last open ocean tract (i.e. not a reef) that still has a food web much like what one would expect the 'Garden of Eden' to have been like. That is: all the 'fruits' are still there, ready to be picked," explains marine ecologist Dr. David Ainley in an interview with mongabay.com, adding that "the reason why it has yet to be depleted by humans is that the Antarctic Treaty prohibits mineral/oil extraction, and its remoteness from civilization, the extensive sea ice that covers it for a lot of the year, and its reputation for harsh weather."
David Ainley with an Adelie penguin. Photo courtesy of David Ainley.
"The fact that all the large fish have been taken from the rest of the world ocean brought industrial fishing to the Ross Sea," says Ainley. "Right now, while the fish are still plentiful, it's easy to quickly fill holds of vessels in just a few weeks."
Industrial fisheries mostly out of New Zealand are targeting the man-sized, slow growing Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), or as it is known by its more palatable market name, the Chilean sea bass. Market-wise, the fish is lumped with a close-relative, the Patagonian toothfish, which has been largely depleted for consumption.
"These fish are the 'sharks' of the southern ocean, and thus play a critical role in the food web," Ainley says. "The removal of sharks from other oceans has had dire ecological consequences, in some cases leading to the disappearance of species with which the sharks have no direct contact. This is because the sharks (toothfish) keep the populations of smaller predators in check."
If the Antarctic toothfish are allowed to vanish due to overexploitation, Ainley says that the Ross Sea—now home to a unique species of killer whale, over a third of the world's Adelie penguins, and over a quarter of the world's emperor penguins—could no longer be considered an intact ecosystem, like stripping lions from the Serengeti or wolves from Alaska.
Economically, Ainley says, the Antarctic toothfish fishery is actually unviable: the cost of traveling and fishing in this remote sea actually outweighs the profit. But instead of giving up the catch, fisheries are now applying for sustainability certificates through the Marine Stewardship Council. If awarded—despite scientific concerns—the fisheries believe they can then up the already expensive price of $20-35 a pound for the species.
Sunset over the Ross Sea. Photo by: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA).
Along with a variety of experts, Ainley is recommending that the Ross Sea become a marine protected area. While mining for resources is already banned in the Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean, Ainley says that "exploitation for the biotic resources of the Southern Ocean, however, is mostly a free-for-all (countries kill whales, or fish mostly to their hearts' content). We hope that Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Resources (CCAMR) somehow develops the strength to establish a network of marine protected areas, and that the Ross Sea is one of them."
To help the Ross Sea, Ainley recommends avoiding Chilean Sea bass entirely and, if possible, giving donations to help finish a film already shot, aptly titled Last Ocean.
For now the Ross Sea is "all nature, pure and simple", Ainley explains. But it will take political will from many nations to keep it that way.
In a July 2010 interview with mongabay.com, David Ainley discusses the uniqueness of the Ross Sea, the ecological value of its Antarctic toothfish, the process of creating a marine protected area (MPA), and the choice between saving the sea or exploiting it.
AN INTERVIEW WITH DAVID AINLEY
Mongabay: What is your background?
Map of Antarctica. Image courtesy of CIA World Factbook.
Mongabay: Many people have probably never heard of the Ross Sea. Where is it? What makes it unique ecologically?
David Ainley: The Ross Sea is about 2000 kilometers south of New Zealand, straddling the International Date Line. It is about the size of southern Europe, and is named after James Clark Ross, who led the first expedition to visit it 180 yeas ago (not so long ago!!). It is the most southerly water mass on Earth (to 78 S), and the site of all the 'heroic' Antarctic expeditions, led by the likes of Amundsen, Scott, Shackelton, Hillary, and Byrd. Its uniqueness stems from being the last intact open ocean ecosystem left on the Planet. The reason why it has yet to be depleted by humans is that the Antarctic Treaty prohibits mineral/oil extraction, and its remoteness from civilization, the extensive sea ice that covers it for a lot of the year, and its reputation for harsh weather discourages long-term visitation required of exploitation.
Mongabay: Can you tell us about your personal experience with the Ross Sea?
David Ainley: In graduate school I investigated the ecology of penguins living on the shores of the Ross Sea. This was at Cape Crozier, one of the "power spots" on the Planet, where incredible, life-denying forces of nature come together, yet the penguins more than persevere: 140 knot winds; the largest glaciers on Earth; in the shadows of some of the highest mountains in Antarctica, with names of Mt Terror and Mt Erebus; and an active volcano (Erebus), etc.
Then I became intrigued by what the penguins were doing during their non-breeding period of the year, when they head out to sea. So, I participated in several research cruises that crisscrossed the Ross Sea and surrounding waters, quantifying the abundance at sea of seabirds, seals and whales. Thereafter, I returned now and again to conduct research on the penguins, other seabirds, seals and whales.
THE LAST OCEAN
Pancake ice on the Ross Sea. Photo by: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA).
David Ainley: Sobering as it is, the human race has depleted and/or extirpated an incredible array of creatures as it spread over the Earth. Humans began with the land creatures, many now extinct, and then turned to the sea. The Ross Sea is the last open ocean tract (i.e. not a reef) that still has a food web much like what one would expect the 'Garden of Eden' to have been like. That is: all the 'fruits' are still there, ready to be picked.
Mongabay: What are some of the important species in the Ross Sea?
David Ainley: 38% of the world's Adelie penguins, 26% of the world's emperor penguins, 30% of the world's Antarctic petrels, about 50% of the world's Ross Sea killer whales (unique species), 6% of the world's Antarctic minke whales, and miraculously, at least for a little while longer, abundant fish the size of a man, the Antarctic toothfish.
Mongabay: Should the Ross Sea be seen as a representation of what other marine environments looked like before industrial fishing?
David Ainley: Other marine systems used to be like the Ross Sea. One can read the book by Pauly and Maclean, "In a Perfect Ocean" to sense what the North Atlantic (which borders a huge proportion of humanity) once was like. What they describe is what still exists in the Ross Sea, and what no where else exists in terms of the abundance of marine creatures and the naturalness of their interactions. No pollution, no toxic "red" tides, no alien species, no anoxic dead zones, no invasions of jelly fish, no control by humans. It's all nature, pure and simple.
Mongabay: Fisheries have been fishing in the Ross Sea since 1996. What brought them there?
An Antarctic toothfish captured and photographed underwater in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Photo by: Paul Cziko, supported by US-NSF through the DeVries-Cheng Lab at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Mongabay: Would you characterize the fishing of the Antarctic toothfish as sustainable?
David Ainley: In no way can this be said of a long-lived (to 50 yrs), slow to mature (at 16 years), slow to grow fish, that also is not particularly fecund (adults likely do not spawn every year). There is no fishery anywhere on Earth that has not overfished a species such as this one.
Mongabay: What role do these fish play in the Ross Sea ecosystem?
David Ainley: In marine food webs, size means everything about what role a species plays. Small fish are eaten by larger fish. The Antarctic toothfish, by a huge margin, as adults, are the largest fish in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean. Owing to their neutral buoyancy, which they share with only a few other fish species, they can exploit the entire water column from the bottom at 2000 meters to the surface; owing to their large size they can eat most things they encounter, including small penguins and smaller toothfish.
These fish are the 'sharks' of the southern ocean, and thus play a critical role in the food web. The removal of sharks from other oceans has had dire ecological consequences, in some cases leading to the disappearance of species with which the sharks have no direct contact. This is because the sharks (toothfish) keep the populations of smaller predators in check.
Mongabay: The fishery has applied to be considered sustainable by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). Where is that decision at?
A number of species depend on Antarctic toothfish. Seen here a Wedell seal eats an Antarctic toothfish. Photo by: Jessica Meir.
Mongabay: What types of food dishes contain Antarctic toothfish? Who's eating this species?
David Ainley: These fish sell at $20-35/pound in the fish market. Only very well-off persons can afford to eat this fish, which is served in many different ways (as Chilean sea bass)...but only little bites are affordable.
SAVING THE ROSS SEA
Mongabay: How do you propose to protect the Ross Sea from overfishing and other threats?
Emperor penguins. Photo courtesy of David Ainley.
Indeed, the shores of the Ross Sea (and the rest of the continent) are fully protected in a World-park type arrangement, and oil and other mineral development is prohibited. Exploitation for the biotic resources of the Southern Ocean, however, is mostly a free-for-all (countries kill whales, or fish mostly to their hearts' content). We hope that CCAMLR somehow develops the strength to establish a network of marine protected areas, and that the Ross Sea is one of them.
Mongabay: Since the Ross Sea is in the Antarctic, who would monitor the protected area if created?
David Ainley: The Ross Sea is home to the Antarctic national research programs of 3 and soon to be 4 countries: USA, New Zealand, Italy and South Korea. Japan has also spent significant time there, although in the capacity of 'scientific whaling'. There is a lot of traffic by research ships and aircraft. There are also capabilities of using satellite technology to detect fishing vessels.
Mongabay: There is a documentary being prepared about the Ross Sea. Does it have a release date? Where will people be able to see the film once it comes out?
The Ross ice shelf in 1997. Photo by: Nathaniel B. Palme, NOAA.
Mongabay: How optimistic are you that the Ross Sea will be saved?
David Ainley: There is a hope, but it only takes a few greedy people to despoil such a place as the Ross Sea. Myriad examples exist.
Mongabay: How can people help save the Ross Sea?
David Ainley: Please do not purchase Chilean sea bass (Antarctic toothfish) in any form, regardless of what stories you hear from the Marine Stewardship Council or the fishing industry. Otherwise, if you know some ecologically conscious people with disposable income, we could use funding to prepare the Last Ocean film thereby to better educate people about what Earth, and its oceans, once was like.
For more information: The Last Ocean and The Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition.
Mount Melbourne on the Ross Sea coastline. Photo by: Michael Van Woert, NOAA.
A Ross Sea killer whale (a distinct species). Photo courtesy of David Ainley.
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