Newsletter 2022-01-13


The thick of it: Delving into the neglected global impacts of human waste by Sean Mowbray [01/11/2022]

– Though little talked about, our species has a monumental problem disposing of its human waste. A recent modeling study finds that wastewater adds around 6.2 million tons of nitrogen to coastal waters worldwide per year, contributing significantly to harmful algal blooms, eutrophication and ocean dead zones.
– The study mapped 135,000 watersheds planetwide and found that just 25 of them account for almost half the nitrogen pollution contributed by human waste. Those 25 were pinpointed in both the developing world and developed world, and include the vast Mississippi River watershed in the United States.
– Human waste — including pharmaceuticals and even microplastics contained in feces and urine — is a major public health hazard, causing disease outbreaks, and putting biodiversity at risk. Sewage is impacting estuary fish nurseries, coral reefs, and seagrasses, a habitat that stores CO2, acting as a buffer against climate change.
– Waste is often perceived as mostly a developing world problem, but the developed world is as responsible — largely due to antiquated municipal sewage systems that combine rainwater and wastewater in the same pipes. As a result, intense precipitation events regularly flush raw sewage into waterways in the U.S., U.K. and EU.

Wild release marks return of giant forest tortoises to Bangladesh hills by Carolyn Cowan [01/10/2022]

– Researchers and villagers last month released 10 captive-bred Asian giant tortoises into Bangladesh’s Chattogram Hill Tracts to boost numbers of the threatened species in the wild, once thought to be extinct in the country.
– Asian giant tortoises are critically endangered throughout their range in South and Southeast Asia due to heavy hunting pressure and habitat loss.
– The rewilding of the batch of juvenile tortoises is the first wild release of offspring reared at a dedicated turtle conservation breeding center that was set up in the Chattogram Hills in 2017 to safeguard the future of several rare and threatened species.
– Through tortoise conservation, researchers are working with local hill tribes to monitor local wildlife, curb hunting, and protect community-managed forests.

Tom Lovejoy’s enduring legacy to the planet by Jeremy Hance [01/07/2022]

– Conservation biologist Tom Lovejoy died on Christmas day, 2021 at the age of 80.- Through his innovative ideas, leadership, and advocacy, Lovejoy leaves an enduring legacy to the field of conservation, writes Jeremy Hance.
– “Among career highlights, Lovejoy published one of the first estimates of global extinction rates in 1980; invented the debt-for-nature swap, a massive boon to conservation areas the world over; he helped raise awareness of the plight of rainforests worldwide, and the Amazon in particular, during the 1980s during the peak save-the-rainforest movement; and he was an advisor to the PBS program, NATURE,” Hance writes.
– “Lovejoy’s work lives on, not only through his fragments project in Brazil, but through years of advising and collaborating with other researchers, celebrities and world leaders, including four US presidents, to preserve the ecological integrity of our natural world.”


In untangling a taxonomic web, Sri Lankan researchers describe seven new jumping spiders By: Malaka Rodrigo [13 Jan 2022]
– A new genetic analysis of the jumping spider genus Flacillula has purged unrelated species and described seven new ones, all endemic to Sri Lanka.
– The genus had been little studied since the type species, F. lubrica, or the oriental jumping spider, was described in 1901.
– Now, it’s joined by seven other species that have been named in honor of historical figures and places where the spiders occur.
– The discovery brings to 159 the number of jumping spiders (family Salticidae) found in Sri Lanka, and puts the island’s total number of spider species at 626.

On agrobiodiversity, the Andes can teach the world much about crop conservation (commentary) By: Barbara Wells [12 Jan 2022]
– Two of the world’s most important crops — maize and potatoes — have a 7,000-year history in the Andes region of South America, where other “super foods” like quinoa, maca and amaranth are also native.
– The region’s great agrobiodiversity virtually guarantees that more “future foods” like these will be adopted by the rest of the globe.
– Investing in research that supports future foods can bring positive economic impacts to households that cultivate, protect, and transform crop biodiversity, while also improving global nutrition and protecting nature, a new op-ed argues.
– This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily of Mongabay.

With the passing of two icons, who will lead the conservation movement? By: Mike Gaworecki [12 Jan 2022]
– This is the first episode of the Mongabay Newscast of 2022, and sadly we’re starting the new year on a somber note as the conservation world recently lost two renowned conservation biologists: Tom Lovejoy and E.O. Wilson both passed away at the end of 2021.
– Here to discuss the legacies both conservation icons leave behind and where we might look to find the next generation of conservation leaders is Rebecca McCaffery, North America president of the Society for Conservation Biology and a wildlife biologist for the United States Geological Survey (USGS). McCaffery tells us about the overarching influence of E.O. Wilson on the world of conservation biology and why she doesn’t necessarily think we need new conservation icons to lead us into the future.
– We also speak with Mongabay staff writer Liz Kimbrough, who interviewed E.O. Wilson just a couple months before his passing. Kimbrough tells us about her conversation with Wilson, what his works have meant to her as both a science writer and a PhD-holding biologist, and where she sees the big ideas and leadership for the conservation biology space coming from in the future.

Oil production or carbon neutrality? Why not both, Guyana says By: Carinya Sharples [12 Jan 2022]
– The government of Guyana says the South American country has already achieved net-zero carbon emissions, and adds it will further cut emissions by 70% by 2030.
– The declaration comes on the heels of Guyana becoming the world’s newest oil-producing country; it began pumping crude at the end of 2019.
– The government has played down the dissonance between its oil-producing status and its emissions reduction goals, saying that oil revenue can be directed to the green economy.
– The question, says Vice President Bharrat Jagdeo, “is whether we can become an oil producer and still maintain our environmental credentials, and continue to advocate globally for a zero-carbon economy. And we believe the answer is yes.”

As Indonesia retakes land from developers, conservation is an afterthought By: Hans Nicholas Jong [12 Jan 2022]
– President Joko Widodo’s administration announced last week that it was cancelling millions of hectares worth of logging, plantation and mining concessions.
– Environmental activists say this presents an opportunity to conserve these lands, which cover a combined area larger than Belgium, by redistributing them to local and Indigenous communities, and protecting areas still home to rainforest.
– However, some senior government officials say the concessions should be reissued to other companies to develop, and indicate that lands redistributed to communities will also be open to investors.

Guinea-Bissau turtle hatchery addresses unusual problem of too many eggs By: Ricci Shryock [12 Jan 2022]
– Five percent of all green sea turtles nest on the beaches of tiny Poilão Island, in the Bijagós Archipelago off Guinea-Bissau, leading to some nests being laid on top of each other.
– Sea turtle monitors are rescuing these “doomed clutches” of eggs and relocating them to less crowded beaches.
– In the future, they hope the sea turtle hatchery will provide educational opportunities that strengthen protection of sea turtles.

Wild cat trade: Why the cheetah is not safe just yet (commentary) By: Patricia Tricorache and Tomas Maule [12 Jan 2022]
– Data collected by researchers show that the cheetah trade has actively continued between East Africa/Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although news reports say there’s been a major decline in cub trafficking.
– The high numbers involved in this illegal trade is relevant to actions by the CITES, which determined that cheetah trade was limited and agreed to delete important decisions adopted in previous years pertaining to enforcement and demand reduction.
– As exotic pets are considered a status symbol in the Gulf States, fueled by the popularity of posts on social media, most people fail to understand that these pets were acquired illegally and the trend will not stop
– This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay.

As its end looms, Cerrado tracker records 6-year deforestation high By: Fernanda Wenzel [12 Jan 2022]
– The satellite-based deforestation-monitoring program focused on Brazil’s vast Cerrado savanna may end in April because of lack of funding, with some members of the team reportedly already laid off.
– Unlike the monitoring program for the Amazon, the one for the Cerrado isn’t included in the government budget and relies on external financing, which dried up in August 2020; since then, the program team has had to scrounge for funding from other projects and institutions.
– Sharing the scientists’ concerns is the agribusiness sector, which relies on the data to prove that its commodity is deforestation-free, and which has blasted the government’s “blurred” vision with regard to failing to fund the monitoring program.
– News of the impending closure of the monitoring program comes a week after its latest data release showed an area six times the size of the city of São Paulo was cleared between August 2020 and July 2021 — the highest deforestation rate in the Cerrado since 2015.

In Panama, a tiny rainfrog named after Greta Thunberg endures By: Liz Kimbrough [11 Jan 2022]
– A tiny tree frog, new to science, has been named after climate activist Greta Thunberg and her work highlighting the urgency of climate change.
– Scientists found the frog on an expedition to Panama’s Mount Chucantí, home to many unique and endemic species, but which has lost more than 30% of its forest cover in the past decade, mostly to small and medium-scale cattle ranchers.
– High-elevation species like the Greta Thunberg’s rainfrog (Pristimantis gretathunbergae) are vulnerable to fine-scale changes in the environment and climate change and “face a constant risk of extinction,” the study authors write.
– The Panamanian nonprofit Adopt a Rainforest Association created a privately patrolled nature preserve on the mountain where 56 undescribed species have been found by scientists. However, funding shortages made worse by COVID-19 have led to a lack of rangers to protect this unique, forested “sky island.”

Coastal deforestation fuels more frequent storms in West Africa, study warns By: [11 Jan 2022]
– Storms are hitting the densely populated coastal pocket of West Africa twice as frequently as 30 years ago, a new study says.
– Declining forest cover is fueling this increased storm frequency in the coastal regions of southern West Africa.
– With the loss of forests, the daytime temperature difference between land and sea is widening, generating stronger winds and feeding convective storms.
– “The coastal location of deforestation in SWA [southern West Africa] is typical of many tropical deforestation hotspots, and the processes highlighted here are likely to be of wider global relevance,” the study authors write.

Despite sanctions, U.S. companies still importing Myanmar teak, report says By: Sheryl Lee Tian Tong [11 Jan 2022]
– U.S. timber companies undercut sanctions to import nearly 1,600 metric tons of teak from Myanmar last year, according to a new report.
– Advocacy group Justice for Myanmar said in its report that firms have been buying timber from private companies acting as brokers in Myanmar, instead of directly from the state-owned Myanma Timber Enterprise, which is subject to U.S. sanctions.
– With MTE under military control, Myanmar’s timber auctions have become more opaque, making it difficult to take action against companies circumventing sanctions.

Indonesia’s clean energy transition must start with clean rivers (commentary) By: Warief Djajanto Basorie [11 Jan 2022]
– Indonesian President Joko Widodo has touted hydropower as key to the country’s transition away from coal, which currently dominates the national energy mix.
– But while Indonesia has a wealth of major rivers with the potential to high power-generating capacity, more than half are degraded and polluted.
– With Indonesia set to showcase its clean energy transition when it hosts the G20 summit later this year, this is the time to start cleaning up the country’s rivers, writes Warief Djajanto Basorie.
– This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay.

Foreign capital, blamed for depleting Indonesia’s fish stocks, is set to return By: Basten Gokkon [11 Jan 2022]
– The Indonesian government has drafted a new regulation to allow foreign investment back into the capture fisheries sector.
– Marine observers warn this could lead to the return of rampant illegal and destructive fishing by foreign vessels and foreign-funded entities in the country’s waters.
– Former fisheries minister Susi Pudjiastuti banned all foreign involvement in Indonesia’s capture fisheries in 2016 to protect the country’s fish stocks.
– Indonesia is the second-largest fish producer in the world and home to one of the highest levels of marine biodiversity.

Philippine groups slam ‘cruel Christmas gift’ as open-pit mining ban is lifted By: Bong S. Sarmiento [11 Jan 2022]
– On Dec. 23, Philippine Environment Secretary Roy Cimatu issued an order overturning a 2017 ban on open-pit mining.
– This follows an April 2021 decision by President Rodrigo Duterte to lift a 2012 moratorium on new mining agreements.
– The move has been welcomed by the mining industry, but slammed by environment and Indigenous rights groups as “a cruel Christmas gift” and “another blow against an already gasping state of our Philippine environment.”

‘I feel obligated to protect them’: A lifelong love affair with Guinea-Bissau’s turtles By: Ricci Shryock [11 Jan 2022]
– Biologist Castro Barbosa has spent his career working to protect the green sea turtles that breed in Guinea-Bissau’s Bjiagós islands.
– The Bijagós are the most important sea turtle breeding grounds in Africa — 5% of the global green turtle population breeds on the island of Poilâo alone.
– Turtles are threatened by accidental capture in fishing nets, hunting, and overharvesting of their eggs, but traditional restriction of access to sacred islands in the Bijagós has protected these breeding grounds.
– Barbosa’s work monitoring turtles and their breeding grounds respects and complements these traditional protections.

In Bolivia, Indigenous groups fear the worst from dam project on Beni River By: Iván Paredes Tamayo [11 Jan 2022]
– More than 5,000 Indigenous people would be impacted by flooding from the construction of two dams in Bolivia, according to Indigenous organizations and environmentalists.
– Successive governments have mulled the Chepete-El Bala hydroelectric project for more than half a century, and the current administration of President Luis Acre has now revived it as a national priority.
– While Indigenous groups have successfully rejected the plan in the past, this time a group of 10 Indigenous organizations have signed an agreement with the state energy company approving feasibility studies.
– If completed, the reservoirs for the project would cover a combined area larger than Bolivia’s capital, La Paz, and inundate an area that’s home to thousands of plant and animal species.

Colombia’s new anti-deforestation law provokes concern for small-scale farmers By: Christina Noriega [10 Jan 2022]
– A new law in Colombia aims to address widespread impunity in cases of environmental crime and curb escalating rates of deforestation.
– The legislation, which took effect last August, comes at a time when deforestation continues to climb in Colombia, where more than 171,000 hectares (423,000 acres) were cleared in 2020.
– Human rights groups and environmentalists have expressed concern that law enforcement may use the new legislation to target vulnerable communities instead of the financiers of deforestation.

Community project helps Kenya aim for climate goals one mangrove tree at a time By: Joyce Chimbi [10 Jan 2022]
– Along Kenya’s southeastern coast, three communities are restoring 460 hectares (1,137 acres) of the Vanga mangrove forest to meet the country’s emission reduction targets, provide a buffer against natural disasters, and support fishing livelihoods.
– The Vanga Blue Forest project has planted more than 1,000 native mangrove trees since it started in 2019, and aims to work with neighboring communities in Tanzania to restore mangrove forests along 140 kilometers (87 miles) of the East African coastline.
– The early stages of the project were a series of trial and error to achieve successful reforestation, as previous efforts a decade earlier had only a 10% survival rate among the 750,000 trees planted.
– The project is involved in the international carbon trade market and has so far sold $44,433 of carbon credits by accumulating 5,023 metric tons of carbon above ground.

New atlas illuminates impact of artificial light in the ocean at night By: Elizabeth Claire Alberts [10 Jan 2022]
– Researchers recently released the first global atlas that quantifies artificial light at night on underwater habitats.
– Artificial light from urban environments along the coast can have far-reaching impacts on a range of marine organisms that have evolved over millions of years to be extremely sensitive to natural light such as moonlight.
– The researchers found that at a depth of 1 meter (3 feet), 1.9 million square kilometers (734,000 square miles) of the world’s coastal oceans were exposed to artificial light at night, equivalent to about 3% of the world’s exclusive economic zones.
– Blue tones from LED lights can penetrate particularly deeply into the water column, potentially causing more issues to underwater inhabitants.

Fighting a Chile mining project with science: Q&A with biologist Maritza Sepúlveda By: Michelle Carrere [10 Jan 2022]
– A recently approved mining project on the Chilean coast has sparked concerns from scientists about the potential impacts on the marine mammals living in the nearby Humboldt Archipelago.
– The channel between the islands and the mainland are home to 15 species of cetaceans, including fin whales, which feed in the area where the mining port will be built — putting them at threat of ship strikes.
– The mining project was previously rejected by the provincial after scientists raised their concerns; among them was marine biologist Maritza Sepúlveda, who studies the marine mammals of the Humboldt Archipelago.
– She says the marine reserve that currently covers just three of the eight islands in the archipelago needs to be expanded to cover a much wider area, noting that “animals don’t recognize administrative regions.”

As blackouts loom, Indonesia’s energy crisis highlights its addiction to coal By: Hans Nicholas Jong [08 Jan 2022]
– Coal miners in Indonesia have been shirking their obligation to allocate 25% of their output for the domestic market, leading to a critical shortage of the fossil fuel for power generation.
– That’s prompted the government to impose a ban on coal exports throughout January, but energy policy experts say this doesn’t address the root of the problem: Indonesia’s overreliance on coal in its energy mix.
– They say the energy crunch, the fifth in 15 years, should ring alarm bells about the need to accelerate the transition away from fossil fuels and toward renewable energy.
– They point out that years of coddling the coal industry have led to the current situation, and that there’s no real sense of urgency about moving away from coal.

Cattle boom in Brazil’s Acre spells doom for Amazon rainforest, activists warn By: Sarah Brown [07 Jan 2022]
– Government data show the number of cattle in Acre, a state in the Brazilian Amazon, increased by 8.3% in 2020, putting the state’s herd size at more than 3.8 million, or four times its human population.
– The cattle industry is a key driver of Acre’s economy, and aligns with the state’s aims of promoting and expanding agricultural development within the region.
– However, activists say they’re concerned the increase will lead to further environmental damage in the state, which this year recorded its highest deforestation rate in 18 years.
– Experts say Acre’s cattle growth is currently not sustainable and will lead to further deforestation in the Amazon unless sustainable solutions are encouraged and implemented.

Not your ordinary houseplant: World’s tallest begonia found in Tibet By: Liz Kimbrough [07 Jan 2022]
– While surveying in the warm and rainy forests of southern Tibet, researchers spotted a begonia twice as tall as a person.
– The new species, which they named Begonia giganticauli, is the tallest begonia in the world.
– Because fewer than 1,000 individual plants are estimated to live in the fragmented forest habitat, the species has been classified as endangered.
– China is home to some 300 begonia species, many of which are illegally collected and overharvested for ornamental or medicinal use, a trend driven by increased internet commerce.

Indonesia aims for sustainable fish farming with ‘aquaculture villages’ By: Luh De Suriyani & M Ambari [07 Jan 2022]
– Indonesia plans to have a network of 136 villages dedicated to aquaculture by the end of this year.
– The initiative is part of the government’s efforts to boost exports of its world-renowned aquaculture commodities, namely shrimp, lobster, crab and seaweed.
– Experts have welcomed the plan, but say it must be supported by sound environmental planning, particularly avoiding the clearing of mangrove forests and ensuring proper waste management.
– Indonesia is one of the top exporters of farmed seafood, but fish farming in the country has long come at the expense of carbon-rich mangrove forests and other important coastal ecosystems.

‘Only the rains will stop it’: Bolivia forest fires hit protected areas By: Yvette Sierra Praeli [07 Jan 2022]
– In the first 10 months of 2021, forest fires in Bolivia razed nearly 2.5 million hectares (6.2 million acres) in the department of Santa Cruz alone, exceeding the figure for the whole of 2020.
– In Santa Cruz, Bolivia’s biggest department, 58% of the burned land was in protected areas, stoked in part by temperatures reaching as high as 43°C (109.4°F).
– Across Bolivia as a whole, forest fires had affected 3.4 million hectares (8.4 million acres).
– Officials say an increase in the number of firefighters and an early-warning system should help contain the burning, but add that “only the rains are able to stop it.”

Proposal could redefine palm oil-driven deforestation as reforestation in Indonesia By: Hans Nicholas Jong [07 Jan 2022]
– Indonesia’s leading forestry university is making the case for oil palms to be classified as a forest crop — a move that would see existing plantations counted as forest, and the establishment of new ones as reforestation.
– The proposal from the Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB) also argues that oil palm plantations should count toward Indonesia’s carbon sequestration goals, despite studies pointing out that clearing rainforest for oil palms leads to vast amounts of emissions
– The move has been criticized by other academics and NGOs, who say it could pave the way for the unfettered clearing of Indonesia’s remaining forests.
– They also say that, if accepted by the government, the plan would legitimize the oil palm plantations currently operating illegally inside forest areas.

Warmer, oxygen-poor waters threaten world’s ‘most heavily exploited’ fish By: Elizabeth Claire Alberts [06 Jan 2022]
– A new report using core samples taken from the seabed has determined that the Humboldt Current system off the coast of Peru was home to smaller fish during the last interglacial period, 130,000 years ago.
– The conditions back then — with little oxygen content in the ocean and temperatures about 2°C (3.6°F) warmer than the average temperature in the current Holocene epoch — mirror those that scientists have predicted for 2100.
– While many studies have argued that warmer water and lower oxygen lead to smaller fish, the added pressure of industrial fishing has made it difficult to determine the threat that climate change will pose on fisheries.
– The Humboldt Current system is one of the most productive fisheries in the world, contributing to more than 15% of the global annual fish catch, so significant changes to this system will threaten food security.

Indigenous food systems can provide game-changing solutions for humankind (commentary) By: Yon Fernandez-de-Larrinoa [06 Jan 2022]
– Although strides have been made in agricultural systems to feed the world population, they have also led to increased emissions and biodiversity loss.
– Indigenous food systems, practiced over millennia, can provide solutions, as shown in a recent report whose findings have spurred scientists and a coalition of several countries to work together to preserve and strengthen Indigenous food systems.
– This article is the last of an eight-part series showcasing Indigenous food systems covered in the most comprehensive FAO report on the topic to date.
– This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay.

Indonesia’s Womangrove collective reclaims the coast from shrimp farms By: Wahyu Chandra [06 Jan 2022]
– A women’s collective in Indonesia’s Tanakeke Islands has restored dozens of hectares of mangroves since its founding six years ago.
– The Womangrove collective focuses on replanting abandoned shrimp and fish farms that were originally established in cleared mangrove areas, and have to date planted more than 110,000 seedlings.
– Indonesia has more mangrove area than any other country in the world, but has lost half of it in the past 30 years, mostly to shrimp and fish farms.

‘Great Blue Wall’ aims to ward off looming threats to western Indian Ocean By: Malavika Vyawahare [06 Jan 2022]
– Ten nations in the western Indian Ocean committed this November to create a network of marine conservation areas to hasten progress toward the goal of protecting 30% of the oceans by 2030.
– Less than 10% of the marine expanse in this region currently enjoys protection, and a recent assessment highlighted the price of failure: all the coral reefs are at high risk of collapse in the next 50 years.
– The focus of these efforts won’t just be coral reefs, but also mangroves and seagrass meadows, a lesser-known underwater ecosystem critical for carbon sequestration and oceanic biodiversity.
– Even as overfishing and warming take a toll on marine health, threats from oil and gas extraction are intensifying in this corner of the Indian Ocean.

Exploring New Guinea’s extraordinary natural and cultural richness By: Mike DiGirolamo [05 Jan 2022]
– New Guinea is one of the most biodiverse regions on the planet. Making up less than 0.5% of the world’s landmass, it is estimated to contain as much as 10% of global biodiversity.
– The dense mountainous region creates barriers to development and conservation alike, but has contributed to preserving 80% of the island’s forest cover which still remains intact.
– However, experts are worried that extractive industries threaten not just its vast biodiversity but the human knowledge, culture, and livelihood of its original inhabitants, which represent more than 1,000 different languages across the island.
– Mongabay Explores is an episodic podcast series exploring unique people, places, and stories from around the globe in-depth. You may be familiar with our previous seasons on “The Great Salamander Pandemic,” and “Sumatra.”

In Madagascar, beekeepers persist in the face of fires and forest loss By: Valisoa Rasolofomboahangy [05 Jan 2022]
– The Anjozorobe Angavo forest corridor is one of the few remaining primary forests in the Central Highlands of Madagascar.
– Home to a number of rare and endemic species, this primary forest is undergoing a rapid decline, driven primarily by fires.
– In hopes of alleviating the problem, an NGO and a honey company are collaborating to train farmers in apiculture, with the aim of providing them with a stable income and an alternative livelihood that does not involve destroying the forest.
– However, this beekeeping project is threatened by the rapid decline of trees that are vital for the survival of bees.

Josefina Tunki: ‘If we have to die in defense of the land, we have to die’ By: Ana Cristina Basantes [05 Jan 2022]
– Josefina Tunki, the first woman to preside over the Shuar Arutam People (PSHA), an Indigenous association in Ecuador, faces death threats due to her opposition to mining on Indigenous lands.
– The Ecuadoran government has granted 165 concessions to mining companies — for copper, gold and molybdenum — that covers 56% of PSHA territory in the Condor mountain range in southeastern Ecuador.
– Tunki’s election as president of the PSHA has revealed structural sexism, but it has also shown hope to a generation that sees women like her in positions of power.
– This report is part of a journalistic collaboration between Mongabay Latam and La Barra Espaciadora (The Space Bar).


Rainforests in 2022: A look at the year ahead by Rhett A. Butler [01/04/2022]
E.O. Wilson’s last dream by Jeremy Hance [01/03/2022]
Endangered chimps ‘on the brink’ as Nigerian reserve is razed for agriculture, timber by Orji Sunday [12/31/2021]