February 14, 2012
"An important source of microplastic appears to be through sewage contaminated by fibers from washing clothes," the authors of the study appearing in Environmental Science and Technology write. The researchers used forensics to look at microplastics from around the world and found that the major source of microplastic pollution was from washing synthetic clothing, and not—as also theorized—from larger plastic fragmentation or cleaning products.
Washing just one synthetic garment a single time could leach as much as 1,900 microplastics into the environment, according to the study. Currently, sewage filters are not made to capture these tiny plastics.
The study also found that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous. Surveying 18 shorelines on six continents, the researchers found that every shore was polluted with microplastics with the highest concentrations near urban areas. Yet, no one knows exactly what this means for the environment.
"Once the plastics had been eaten, its transferred from [the animals'] stomachs to their circulation system and actually accumulated in their cells," Mark Browne, lead author with the University College Dublin, told the BBC.
The authors conclude that "as the human population grows and people use more synthetic textiles, contamination of habitats and animals by microplastic is likely to increase."
CITATION: Mark A. Browne; Phillip Crump; Stewart J. Niven; Emma Teuten; Andrew Tonkin; Tamara Galloway; and Richard Thompson. Accumulation of Microplastic on Shorelines Woldwide: Sources and Sinks. Environmental Science & Technology. 2011. dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201811s.
Acid oceans: in some regions acidification a 'hundred times greater' than natural variation
(01/24/2012) Emissions of carbon over the last two centuries have raised the acidity of the oceans to the highest levels in 21,000 years and likely beyond, according to a new study in Nature Climate Change. The change threatens a number of marine species, including coral reefs and molluscs.
Deepwater oil spill likely to hurt fish populations over decades
(09/28/2011) Oil pollution doesn't have to kill fish to have a long-term impact, according to a recent study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Researchers found that Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) that had been exposed to very low to non-detectable levels of oil contamination from the Deepwater oil spill last year, still showed developmental problems that are likely to impact fish populations for decades to come.
Ocean prognosis: mass extinction
(06/20/2011) Multiple and converging human impacts on the world's oceans are putting marine species at risk of a mass extinction not seen for millions of years, according to a panel of oceanic experts. The bleak assessment finds that the world's oceans are in a significantly worse state than has been widely recognized, although past reports of this nature have hardly been uplifting. The panel, organized by the International Program on the State of the Ocean (IPSO), found that overfishing, pollution, and climate change are synergistically pummeling oceanic ecosystems in ways not seen during human history. Still, the scientists believe that there is time to turn things around if society recognizes the need to change.