March 17, 2011
Outline of Yellowstone National Park, the world's first modern protected are, as seen by Google Earth. Yellowstone was opposed by many when it was first created including logging and mining industries.
"People have been aware of these events since the dawn of the international conservation movement. Because most conservation research and action is at the local or regional level, however, those of us in the conservation community recognized—and addressed—individual PADDD events but not the larger phenomenon of downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement," co-author Mike Mascia. a senior social scientist at World Wildlife Fund (WWF), told mongabay.com.
The researchers found three primary reasons behind incidents of PADDD: development of infrastructure such as road building and dams; industrial exploitation, often for mining, oil and gas, plantations, or logging; and finally land issues. The last of these is perhaps the most complex as it involves the struggle between community rights, often of indigenous groups, and environmental protection. Over the past few decades, conservationists have become more sensitive to indigenous and local people's land claims, as well as their position as stewards of the ecosystems they inhabit. Still, Mascia says more research needs to be done on how this is impacting parks worldwide.
Indigenous park guard of the Trio tribe in Suriname. Photo by: Rhett A. Butler.
In a few cases, downgrading protected areas by handing over management to local communities has actually benefited protection.
"Arun Agrawal’s research in India suggests that, in some cases, transitioning from strict protected areas to community-based systems that permit subsistence use of natural resources may foster local resource stewardship and enhance conservation outcomes," explains Sharon Pailler, another social scientist with WWF.
However community demands over protected areas do not always result in equal or better protection. For example, Ruvu Game Reserve in Tanzania was officially abolished after local people encroached with cattle and agriculture, while Uganda's Mgahinga Forest Reserve was cut down by a third due to local demands for farmland. This tension between human demands and the importance of protected areas typifies the occurrences of PADDD due to land issues.
Loss of protected areas to infrastructure or industrial exploitation is less complex: conservation is the loser in these incidents. Past incidents bear this out: in the late 1970s a third of the original extent of Indonesia's Kutai protected area was opened to logging; during 1990s the oil industry pressured changes in the status and size of a number of parks in Ecuador with the oil industry's presence becoming common place in some protected areas; in the 1980s Malaysia changed Kilas National Park's status to allow plantation forestry; and in the 1960s an unnamed reserve in Madagascar was abolished to allow the timber industry free reign.
However, PADDD is as much an issue of the present as it was in the past, perhaps even more so. According to the study, 12 countries have recently weakened, or are debating weakening, their protected areas. It is also likely, though not yet certain, that incidents of PADDD will increase as the world's natural resources continue to shrink.
"Demand for oil, timber, and minerals is associated with many instances of PADDD, but whether future demand for these commodities will lead to future such occurrences is an open question," Mascia explains, adding that "one would certainly expect that growing global commodity demands, alongside increasing local land pressures and land claims, will increasingly place protected areas […] at the center of public policy debates in developed and developing countries alike. "
From 1985 to 1997, nine nations (Botswana, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Luxembourg, Pakistan, Somalia, and Togo) actually saw their protected area coverage decline, implying that PADDD is a far more common occurrence than conservationists have generally recognized.
"Indeed," the authors of the paper write, "conservation strategies must be resilient not only in the face of biophysical perturbations like climate change, but also when confronted by sociopolitical shocks like food shortages, political crises, and spikes in global demand for commodities."
Case studies today
A portion of Virunga National Park swaddled in clouds as seen by Google Earth.
Currently, the status of protected areas is vigorously under debate in nations like the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cambodia, and the US, while other countries, such as New Zealand, have only recently fought back an attempt to weaken their parks.
The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently considering opening up portions of Africa's oldest National Park, Virunga, to oil exploration and exploitation. Home to some of Africa's most iconic wildlife, including no small number of endangered species such as mountain gorillas, the decision has proven controversial enough for even the UN to voice its disapproval.
"Altering or downgrading the park’s protected status in the name of oil drilling would be against the law not only in DRC, but internationally as well, since the park is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site which makes drilling there explicitly illegal. WWF stands strongly against any oil exploration or exploitation in Virunga, or the altering of Virunga’s protected status for any reason," Allard Blom, managing director for WWF’s Congo Basin Program, told mongabay.com
The outline (in pink) of the Arctic National Wildlife in Alaska, bordering Canada as seen by Google Earth. Protection of America's largest park is constantly under attack to allow drilling.
"There is currently an internal struggle within the government of DRC over the fate of Virunga. The environmental ministry and park service have expressed opposition to protected area in Virunga, but other government interests are intent on oil exploration. At the moment we really don’t know how this is going to end," adds Blom.
The oil companies have argued that they could vastly improve security in the park, which is currently inhabited by deadly rebel forces. However, Matthew Lewis, senior program officer for WWF's Species Conservation Program, doesn't see oil in the park as a victory for rangers caught in the fire.
"An astonishing fact is that more than 130 rangers have died in the line of duty since 1996 protecting Virunga National Park. Regardless of the millions of dollars spent on conservation in the park over the decades, the most tragic aspect of losing it to oil exploration in my opinion would be that these brave men will have died in vain, fighting for a lost cause."
Some PADDD incidents have received less coverage in the media and less attention from conservation organizations, but could still widely damage regional conservation efforts. For example, Cambodia is handing over around 50,000 hectares of remote and little-studied Viracehy National Park to rubber plantations and other development projects, essentially shrinking the protected area by 16%.
Cambodia's Secretary of State at the Environment Ministry, Thuk Kroeun Vutha, told the Cambodian Daily, "It is not against the law when the government approves it."
Weakening parks is not only a debate in developing countries. American politicians have been debating opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)—the nation's biggest protected area—to oil drilling since the 1970s. During the past decade opening up the protected area to drilling was voted on numerous times, but never made it all the way through the US political system. Current US President, Barack Obama, has stated he is not in favor of opening ANWR to oil exploitation.
One of the more remarkable examples of a debate on downgrading protected areas occurred last year in New Zealand. After announcing a plan to open 7,000 hectares of protected areas to mining, the New Zealand government faced a brutal backlash. 40,000 protesters marched in what the New Zealand Herald called 'the biggest [march] in a generation. This was followed by 37,000 comments on the government plans most of which were critical. Following the uproar, the government canceled any plans to downgrade its parks.
While many protected areas remain in jeopardy worldwide from weakening, shrinking, or abolishment, New Zealand proves that whether a protected area remains for posterity is ultimately up to us.
CITATION: Michael B. Mascia & Sharon Pailler. Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) and its conservation implications. Conservation Letters 4 (2011) 9–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00147.x.
A portion of Cambodia's Virachey National Park as seen by Google Earth.
Conservation catch-22: do nature reserves attract human settlers?
(06/28/2010) Does the creation of protected areas draw people to settle on their fringes, negatively impacting ecosystems and biodiversity? According to an opinion piece in Tropical Conservation Science the answer to this question is to date unknown.
Cambodia approves rubber plantation—in national park
(03/13/2011) The Cambodian Prime Minister, Hun Sen, has approved a 9,000 hectare (22,200 acre) rubber plantation in Virachey National Park despite its status as a protected area, reports the Phnom Penh Post. The park is also listed as an ASEAN Heritage Park.
Parks key to saving India's great mammals from extinction
(02/24/2011) Krithi Karanth grew up amid India's great mammals—literally. Daughter of conservationist and scientist Dr. Ullas Karanth, she tells mongabay.com that she saw her first wild tigers and leopard at the age of two. Yet, the India Krithi Karanth grew up in may be gone in a century, according to a massive new study by Karanth which looked at the likelihood of extinction for 25 of India's mammals, including well-known favorites like Bengal tigers and Asian elephants, along with lesser known mammals (at least outside of India) such as the nilgai and the gaur. The study found that given habitat loss over the past century, extinction stalked seven of India's mammals especially: Asiatic lions, Bengal tigers, wild dogs (also known as dholes), swamp deer, wild buffalo, Nilgiri Tahr, and the gaur. However, increasing support of protected areas and innovative conservation programs outside of parks would be key to saving India's wildlife in the 21st Century.
Oil company charged after allegedly forcing entry into Virunga National Park
(02/21/2011) The Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) national parks authority, ICCN, has filed a suit against oil company, SOCO International, for allegedly forcing entry into Virunga National Park. The legal row comes amid revelations that two oil companies, SOCO and Dominion Petroleum, are exploring the park for oil.
Selling the Forests that Saved Britain
(02/15/2011) I confess that British Prime Minister David Cameron’s proposal to auction off all 650,000 acres of England’s national forests to the highest bidder came as a bit of a shock to me – especially as the contained such world-famous national treasures as Robin Hood’s Sherwood Forest, the Forest of Dean and the New Forest. Although warned by my Irish mother that Tories can never be trusted, Mr. Cameron’s passionate pledge to deliver the “greenest government ever” seemed sincere, especially given his ambitious plans to cut Britain’s pollution. Anyway, even if he turned out to be as slippery as his predecessors, his deep green Liberal Democratic coalition partners would, I thought, keep the planet high on his priority list.
Organizations unite against plan to open Turkey's protected areas to development
(02/01/2011) Last week nearly 200 Turkish organizations banded together to protest a draft law by the government to open up Turkey's protected areas to development. A combination of environmental, health, education, and human rights groups joined outside the Turkish Parliament with signs stating, 'We Won't Give You Anatolia', another name for the region.
UN and conservation organizations condemn big oil's plan to drill in Virunga National Park
(01/20/2011) WWF, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the UN have all recently expressed concerns about two oil companies' plan to explore for oil in Africa's oldest and famed Virunga National Park. Home to a quarter of the world's mountain gorillas, as well as chimpanzees, hippos, lions, forest elephants, and rare birds Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of Africa's most biodiverse parks and is classified by the UN as a World Heritage Site. But according to WWF plans by oil companies SOCO International and Dominion Petroleum could jeopardize not only the wildlife and ecosystems, but also local people.
'Environmental and social aggression': oil exploration threatens award-winning marine protected area
(12/01/2010) The Seaflower Marine Protected Area (MPA), which recently won top honors at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Japan, is now under threat by planned oil exploration in the region, according to the Providence Foundation which is devoted to protecting the area. Proposed blocs for exploration by the Colombian government lie in the North Cays adjacent to the park, and perhaps even inside MPA boundaries. Spreading over 65,000 square kilometers (6.5 million hectares), Seaflower MPA lies within the Colombian Caribbean department known as the Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina. This richly diverse Archipelago is home to a known 57 coral species, over 400 fish, and some 150 birds, as well as the ethnic and cultural minority: the Raizal people. The prospect of massive infrastructure or, even worse, oil spills in the area could devastate the park and locals' livelihoods.
Oil, indigenous people, and Ecuador's big idea
(11/23/2010) Ecuador's big idea—potentially Earth-rattling—goes something like this: the international community pays the small South American nation not to drill for nearly a billion barrels of oil in a massive block of Yasuni National Park. While Ecuador receives hundred of millions in an UN-backed fund, what does the international community receive? Arguably the world's most biodiverse rainforest is saved from oil extraction, two indigenous tribes' requests to be left uncontacted are respected, and some 400 million metric tons of CO2 is not emitted from burning the oil. In other words, the international community is being asked to put money where its mouth is on climate change, indigenous rights, and biodiversity loss. David Romo Vallejo, professor at the University of San Francisco Quito and co-director of Tiputini research station in Yasuni, recently told mongabay.com in an interview that this is "the best proposal so far made to ensure the protection of this incredible site."
Following public outcry, New Zealand drops plan to mine protected areas
(07/20/2010) The New Zealand government has caved to public pressure, announcing that it is dropping all plans to mine in protected areas. The plan to open 7,000 hectares of protected areas to mining would have threatened a number of rare and endemic species, including two frogs that are prehistoric relics virtually unchanged from amphibian fossils 150 million years old: Archey's frog (Leiopelma archeyi) and Hochstetter's frog (Leiopelma hochstetteri).