July 08, 2010
Timber Investigators: Operation Jurupari and illegal logging in the Amazon
While the investigation focused on activities in the state of Mato Grosso, which is located in the southern Amazon and is one of the most deforested regions largely due to clearing land for expanding soya farms, it touched numerous others, including São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais and Distrito Federal.
Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
- the chief of staff (Silvio Correa) and former aide (Marizete Caovilla) of the current Mato Grosso governor (Silval Barbosa);
- the former Environment Secretary (Luis Henrique Daldegan) of the previous governor (Blairo Maggi);
- the former Deputy Secretary of Environment (under Governor Maggi) and current deputy secretary of the State Rural Development Agency (under Governor Barbosa) (Afrânio Cesar Migliari), who is allegedly the mastermind behind the scheme;
- The State Environment Agency's GIS Coordinator (Luciana Estevam);
- The Assistant Secretary for Climate Change in the State Environment Agency (Alex Marega); and
- the wife (Jane Riva), son-in-law (Carlos Antonio Azóia) and two advisors to the President of the Legislative Assembly (Joseph Riva).
The illicit logging scheme centered on fraud in the administrative and planning process for timber harvests. This locus, deep within the bureaucratic machinations for environmental permits, obscured the criminal activities and made them particularly tricky to detect.
Brazilian Federal Police officer on a logging truck. Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
At their heart, these transgressions entailed government authorities, foresters, businesses and landowners knowingly falsifying or certifying inaccurate analyses and documents in order to make illegal logging look legal.
It often started with government officials approving forest management plans based on bogus information. This created "dummy" records that could later legalize wood taken illegally from national parks and indigenous reserves. Permits for harvesting wood were based on these forest management plans, which laid out what trees grew in a particular area and determined what could sustainably—and legally—be harvested.
Aerial photos taken by helicopter from public areas and private properties in Mato Grosso that were deforested illegally during Operation Jurupari. In some cases, these were used to confirm suspicious activities noticed by investigators on satellite images. Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
The motive for these bureaucratic and technical gymnastics was simple: profit. Documentation that timber was legally harvested raised its sale price significantly, from $28 for an illegal log to about $770 for a legal one. Brazilian laws to protect the rainforest require timber companies to show that their logs came from an approved source.
THE POLITICAL STAKES
Coming just four months before Brazil's elections, Operation Jurupari has sparked a political and legal firestorm made all the more intense because of the May 21, 2010 arrests of top government officials. On October 3, 2010, Brazil will elect its President, all seats in its national Chamber of Deputies and 54 (out of 81) seats in its Federal Senate, all of its state governors, and all seats in its state legislative assemblies.
Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
Maggi, who is known as "The Soya King," long had a reputation as an anti-environmentalist and destroyer of forests. In 2005, he won Greenpeace's Golden Chainsaw award for the Brazilian person who most contributed to the Amazon rainforest's destruction. At the time, Greenpeace's Amazon Campaigner Paulo Adario said, "Maggi deserved the award. After two years as the State Governor, he has turned Mato Grosso into the State champion of deforestation, responsible for 48 percent of the total forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon." Since then, however, he has done an about-face from eco-villain to eco-hero. By 2009, he reformed his views and was pushing for climate solutions and promoting his own steps for ending deforestation, such as the idea of giving landowners financial incentives to leave trees standing, because of government inaction in this arena.
However, the arrests of many in his previous administration call into question Maggi's environmental change of heart, a debate that had always simmered underneath the surface. One of the main people in charge of cleaning up Maggi's reputation was his former Environment Secretary, Luiz Henrique Daldegan. However, Daldegan was one of those arrested as part of the scheme to take wood illegally from public lands.
Operation "Arco de Fogo"(Arc of Fire) in 2008. Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
Adding fuel to the debate regarding the "real" Blairo Maggi is Maggi's vocal defense of his former staff. As part of this tactic, he is part of a prominent group of 17 political leaders who are calling for the immediate expulsion of the judge and prosecutor for Operation Jurupari.
In addition to the Maggi controversy, Operation Jurupari casts a pall over both current Mato Grosso Governor Silval Barbosa, whose chief of staff, aide, and SEMA officials were implicated, and the President of the State legislative assembly Joseph Riva, whose wife, son-in-law and two advisors were arrested.
THE LEGAL WRANGLING
With such high electoral stakes, charges of political bias overlay the normal legal maneuverings and appeals. On the one hand is the group of 17 political leaders who formally applied to have both the judge (Judge Julier Sebastiao da Silva) and prosecutor (Mario Lucio Avelar) for Operation Jurupari removed.
ANIMAL INVESTIGATORS inspires Brazilian Federal Police and Operation Jurupari
I found out about this story through a personal correspondence with Franco Perazzoni, the Brazilian Federal Police agent in charge of the operation. In September 2009, I met Perazzoni at the Interpol Wildlife Crime Working Group meeting held in Manaus, Brazil. At that time, I gave him a copy of my book, ANIMAL INVESTIGATORS: How the World's First Wildlife Forensic Lab is Solving Crimes and Saving Endangered Species.
As a writer, I always wonder how my words might impact others. Most of the time, the relationship between a book and its reader remains private, with the author never learning how his or her book affected its audience. This time was different, however, when Perazzoni wrote: "I've never had the opportunity to really thank you for the book, so I would like you to know it was very inspiring and, in some aspects, helped me in the finalization of our most recently operation against illegal logging in Amazon, called 'JURUPARI.'"
The preventative arrests meant the defendants were immediately imprisoned and their assets seized. The amounts varied based on the suspect's involvement. The largest confiscation was Afrânio Migliari's, with $225 million in assets seized. By comparison, Migliari's salary at SEMA was under $5,700 per month ($68,400/year).
Following their detention, 64 detainees appealed (through an application for habeas corpus) and claimed the arrests were politically biased. The initial petition was to be examined by the chief judge of Federal Court of Region 1 in Brasilia, Italo Fioravanti Sabo Mendes, who was expected to conclude the arrests were legal and that the evidence was sufficient for prosecution. However, because one of Mendes' relatives was hired as the defense lawyer for one of the defendants, the case was instead heard by Judge Fernando Tourinho Neto of the Federal Regional Court of Region 1 in Brasilia. On May 26th, Judge Neto released all of those arrested.
Image courtesy of the Brazilian Federal Police
The changing nature of illegal logging - and illegal logging investigations - in Brazil's Amazon
(07/08/2010) Operation Jurupari followed on several previous Brazilian Federal Police investigations into SEMA, including: Operation Curupira I (June 2005); Curupira II (August 2005); Mapinguari (2007), Arc of Fire (2008), Termes (April 2008); and Caipora (2008). It was led by Franco Perazzoni, Brazilian Federal Police "Delegado" (or chief), who, since 2006, has headed the environmental crimes unit in Mato Grosso and been responsible for about 300 investigations on environmental crimes, of which about 75% were on illegal deforestation in federal areas. The nature of the illegal deforestation has changed over the years.
|Dr. Laurel A. Neme is the author of ANIMAL INVESTIGATORS: How the World's First Wildlife Forensics Lab is Solving Crimes and Saving Endangered Species. She also hosts The WildLife with Laurel Neme, a program that explores the mysteries of the animal world through interviews with scientists and other wildlife investigators. "The WildLife" airs every Monday from 1-2 pm EST on WOMM-LP, 105.9 FM in Burlington, Vermont. You can livestream it at theradiator.org or download the podcast from iTunes, laurelneme.com or laurelneme.podbean.com.|
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