Newsletter 2022-03-10


In a national park plagued by encroachers, Indonesia tries a new approach by Tonggo Simangunsong [03/09/2022]

– For years, people have settled illegally in national parks around Indonesia, clearing the land and farming it in the hope they will eventually be granted legal title to it.
– While the authorities’ default response has been to evict them, a new government program is taking a more collaborative approach that aims to be a win-win for both the parks and the people.
– Under the “conservation partnership” program, the settlers acknowledge that they cannot lay claim to the land and must work to restore damaged ecosystems.
– In turn, they’re allowed to allowed to remain on the land and cultivate “traditional” crops and harvest non-timber forest products, such as rattan and honey, but not allowed to grow rubber and oil palm.

The world says yes to a cradle to grave plastics treaty: Now the work begins by Charles Pekow [03/07/2022]

– 175 countries unanimously agreed last week on a United Nations framework to fight global plastic pollution from cradle to grave. Reluctant nations, including India and Japan, sought a far more limited agreement only dealing with ocean plastic pollution. But they acquiesced in the end.
– A committee will shortly begin work on drafting the treaty, determining global rules, and financing and enforcement mechanisms, with a goal of finishing by the end of 2024.
– While many crucial details remain to be worked out over the next two years, the UN resolution calls for a combination of required and “voluntary actions” to address the cradle to grave plastics crisis. The document even addresses the extraction of chemicals used in production, meaning the final treaty could seriously impact the oil industry.
– Also, wealthier nations may be called on to provide assistance to less developed ones. Environmental groups are pleased with the agreement, though caution that much work lies ahead. The plastics industry had hoped for a far more limited agreement and it is expected to offer input on the final shape of the treaty.

Brazil’s Atlantic Forest gets a chance at a fresh start through restoration by Taís Seibt and Duda Menegassi [03/07/2022]

– Restoration initiatives are slowly making a mark on the Atlantic Forest, a Brazilian biome that has been reduced to about a quarter of its original area.
– Brazil has made global commitments to restore tens of millions of hectares of forest by 2030, but the much smaller programs underway in the Atlantic Forest show the country is still unable to monitor restoration efforts effectively.
– A survey shows that restoration data are not systematized in the public sphere, at either the federal or state levels, and that information is decentralized or not even produced. Lack of governance is another bottleneck to be overcome on the agenda.
– Civil society efforts have emerged to fill this gap in the role of public authorities, such as the Restoration and Reforestation Observatory and the Pact for Restoration of the Atlantic Forest.

In Nigeria, a decade of payoffs boosted global wildlife trafficking hub by Ini Ekott [03/04/2022]

– An investigation by Nigeria’s Premium Times and Mongabay has found evidence of systematic failure by Nigerian law enforcement and the judicial system to hold wildlife poachers and traffickers accountable.
– Our analysis of official wildlife crimes data, supported by numerous interviews with prosecutors, environmental campaigners and traders at wildlife markets in Lagos, Cross River, Abuja, Ogun and Bauchi states, found a near-total reliance on minor out-of-court settlements in trafficking cases.
– Despite numerous high-profile, multimillion-dollar trafficking busts at Nigeria’s ports since 2010, no one has faced jail terms as a result.
– The reliance on informal payments to local officials encourages corruption, experts say, while sporadic crackdowns on wildlife markets have not stopped traders operating in the country’s commercial capital.


Tiger and bear rescue spotlights captive wildlife tourism woes in Thailand By: Carolyn Cowan [10 Mar 2022]
– After two years of closed borders and little tourism revenue, many captive wildlife facilities around the world are struggling.
– Phuket Zoo in Thailand recently closed down permanently, but rehoming its 11 tigers and two bears has proved a challenge.
– A local nonprofit, Wildlife Friends Foundation Thailand, has stepped in to undertake the largest single rescue of tigers in the country’s history, and has so far transferred one female tiger to its rescue center.
– Animal welfare experts say the situation highlights the perils of overreliance on tourism and are calling on the government to place better controls on breeding animals in captivity.

In West and Central Africa, palm oil investors buckle under community pressure By: Ashoka Mukpo [10 Mar 2022]
– In the late 2000s, a commodity boom spurred a rush of land deals in West and Central Africa for palm oil development, raising fears of deforestation and land grabbing.
– A new report by the financial risk analyst Chain Reaction Research says most of the deals have since failed, with 27 representing 1.37 million hectares (3.39 million acres) of land having been outright abandoned
– Researchers say that cross-border campaigning and resistance by community land rights organizations is a major reason why the industry has faltered in Africa.

South America hosts nearly half of 9,000 tree species unknown to science By: Suzana Camargo [10 Mar 2022]
– The most comprehensive survey of Earth’s tree life has just been published, showing that there are some 9,000 species that scientists still haven’t described.
– Nearly half of these unknown trees are found in South America, which in turn accounts for 43% of the estimated 73,000 trees found on Earth, according to the study.
– Almost 150 researchers from across the globe collaborated on the study, which increases the previous estimate for total tree species by 14%.
– The study authors say the unidentified species are mostly rare and more vulnerable to the risk of extinction, hence there’s an urgent need to implement stricter protection and enforcement of environmental laws.

Indonesian ex-minister gets sentence cut for ‘good work’ fueled by corruption By: Basten Gokkon [10 Mar 2022]
– Indonesia’s top appeals court has slashed the jail sentence for Edhy Prabowo, the country’s former fisheries minister, from nine years to five.
– In their ruling, the judges said a lower court had been unduly harsh in its sentencing, and specifically praised Edhy’s “good work” in lifting a ban on lobster larvae exports.
– But it was precisely over this policy that Edhy was arrested in 2020 and subsequently convicted in 2021: He was found guilty of collecting nearly $2 million in bribes from crony-linked companies that were awarded the lucrative export contracts.
– Fisheries observers have criticized the latest ruling, saying it fails to reflect the severity of Edhy’s crime.

Podcast: Are ‘nature based solutions’ the best fix for climate change? By: Mike Gaworecki [09 Mar 2022]
– On today’s episode of the Mongabay Newscast, we discuss mangrove restoration and other nature based solutions to climate change.
– We speak with Alfredo Quarto, co-founder and program and policy director of the Mangrove Action Project, who tells us about the ongoing destruction of mangrove forests around the world, why it’s so important to restore these coastal ecosystems, and what makes for successful mangrove restoration projects.
– We also speak with Norah Berk, a policy advisor on climate change and forests at the Rainforest Foundation UK, who tells us that nature based solutions have, in many cases, been co-opted by corporations that are using them as part of carbon offset schemes, and discusses why she thinks land titling for Indigenous and local communities is the solution to climate change that we should be focusing on.

To cooperatively stop deforestation for commodities, navigating ‘legal’ vs ‘zero’ is key (commentary) By: Michael Wolosin [09 Mar 2022]
– As a decade-long effort by the private sector to voluntarily eliminate deforestation from commodity supply chains stalls, the EU, UK, and US are all considering trade regulations.
– But policy makers and advocates have been debating the relative merits of trade barriers based on a “legality” or “zero-deforestation” standard: we believe this presents a false dichotomy. Both are necessary, from different stakeholders.
– Importing countries must support forest country governance and ownership of deforestation reduction goals, while the private sector must rapidly accelerate their implementation of zero-deforestation commitments. This “international partnership pathway” offers a more equitable and likely faster strategy, a new op-ed argues.
– This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay.

Photos: On Colombo’s outskirts, an urban birding paradise flourishes By: Chandani Kirinde [09 Mar 2022]
– Sri Lanka’s largest urban wetland, centered around Lake Diyawanna near Colombo, is home to around 100 species of birds, both migratory and endemic.
– The extensive reed beds in the marshy lands provide the ideal nesting and feeding grounds for white-breasted waterhens (Amaurornis phoenicurus) and several species of egrets, storks, and herons.
– The area also retains thick wooded patches in addition to the ubiquitous coconut trees that attract rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri), black-hooded orioles (Oriolus xanthornus), brown-headed barbets (Megalaima zeylanica) and Asian koels (Eudynamys scolopaceus).
– The area’s bird life began to thrive in the absence of human-caused disturbances, due to lockdowns during the pandemic.

Study finds major brands selling cat food that contain protected sharks By: Elizabeth Claire Alberts [09 Mar 2022]
– Researchers used DNA barcoding to find that cat food sold in Singapore from at least 16 different brands contained threatened species of sharks, including silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) that are protected under CITES Appendix II.
– Leading brands such as Fancy Feast, Whiskas, and Sheba were amongst those found to contain silky sharks and other species.
– None of these cat food products were accurately labeled to show that they contained sharks.
– Global shark populations are in sharp decline, mainly due to destructive fishing practices.

The isolated tapirs of the Atlantic Forest face an uncertain future By: Luís Patriani [09 Mar 2022]
– Lowland tapirs today occupy less than 2% of their historic range in the Atlantic Forest, and only a handful of their populations are deemed viable over the long term, a new study has found.
– A key factor in the unviability of most of the populations is the fragmentation of their habitat, which isolates small groups away from each other and often far from their sources of food.
– The study authors say the biggest threat to the species today is being struck by vehicles as they cross busy highways in search of food, while another threat comes from their slow reproductive rate, which translates into deaths outnumbering births.
– But the authors say they maintain some optimism, given that their study found tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest are stable or showing signs of growth — an improvement over the situation only a few decades ago.

Climate change set to upend global fishery agreements, study warns By: Spoorthy Raman [09 Mar 2022]
– The warming of the world’s oceans by climate change is pushing fish away from their current habitats and toward Earth’s poles.
– By 2030, scientists predict a quarter of the global shared fish stocks could move, a new study says, with about three-quarters of countries seeing at least one fish species move out of their exclusive economic zone.
– Countries in the tropics, especially those in the Caribbean, Latin America, Oceania and South Asia, could experience the shifts earlier; and while some countries stand to benefit at the expense of others, these shared fish stock movements could upend current fisheries agreements, leading to disputes.
– To avert disputes, countries could renegotiate current catch quotas to factor in the effects of climate change-driven fish movements, the study authors say.

Indonesian fishing boat found with banned trawl net highlights enforcement challenges By: Yogi Eka Sahputra [09 Mar 2022]
– A vessel seized for fishing in an off-limits area in Indonesia may have also been using a type of trawl net that’s been banned for its destructive impact on fish stocks.
– The KM Sinar Samudra was seized off the Natuna Islands on Feb. 18, and a subsequent inspection found a banned cantrang trawl net on board.
– The boat’s captain denied the net was ever used for fishing, and police have chosen not to pursue charges over the use of illegal fishing gear.
– Fisheries observers say the case highlights the challenge of policing the type of gear that fishers use in one of the world’s biggest fishing nations.

Greek conservationists collaborate to protect endemic species in face of climate change By: Evan Bourtis [08 Mar 2022]
– Across Greece, conservation NGOs are working in close collaboration to study and save numerous endemic species found nowhere else.
– Often working in areas famed for Greek mythology like Mount Olympus and Mount Oiti, the plants and animals now need what seems like divine intervention to survive the ravages brought by climate change.
– Why so many endemic species? Greece has “an amazing diversity of climates and also soils. This creates an amazing diversity of life,” one conservationist tells Mongabay.

Gold used in Italian wedding rings linked to Amazon deforestation By: Lucas Ferraz and Guilherme Henrique [08 Mar 2022]
– An investigation in Brazil has identified Italian company Chimet, which refines precious metals for the jewelry industry, as a buyer of gold mined illegally from an Indigenous reserve in the Amazon.
– The allegations follow a police operation that cracked down on the web of illegal miners, middlemen and exporters who “launder” the gold to conceal its origin.
– Chimet has denied the allegations, saying it only buys from suppliers whose paperwork is in order; Italian police say that if the export documents were forged in Brazil, it’s a matter for the Brazilian police.
– Mining in Indigenous territories is prohibited under Brazil’s Constitution, but a lack of enforcement has allowed the practice to flourish.

‘Comical’ bat not seen in 40 years is found again in a Rwandan park By: Liz Kimbrough [08 Mar 2022]
– For the first time in 40 years, researchers caught a Hill’s horseshoe bat, confirming that the bat population still clings to life in Rwanda’s Nyungwe National Park, a highly biodiverse area containing old-growth cloud forest.
– Rhinolophus bats echolocate through the unique and exaggerated folds on their noses called “nose leaves,” which, in the case of the Hill’s horseshow bat, gives them a bass frequency, unlike the soprano of other horseshoe bats.
– Now that researchers have identified their call, they can use acoustic monitoring to eavesdrop on the critically endangered species with minimal impact.
– A lead researcher on the team said the bats are likely restricted to a core area, and although the park is well-patrolled by rangers, this area should be a focus in order to protect the remaining bats, whose population remains unknown.

Indonesian program’s promise of food security backfires for local farmers By: Hans Nicholas Jong [08 Mar 2022]
– Indonesia’s food estate program, billed as improving domestic food availability, has had the opposite effect on farmers recruited into the scheme, a new study shows.
– The research by NGOs shows that farmers in North Sumatra province saw their rice harvests decline by up to 80% as they were told to farm other crops for the program.
– And the harvests from those other crops, including potatoes and garlic, were not enough to make up for the loss of their rice harvests, due to the lower prices they fetched.
– The researchers warn that the food estate program also puts participating farmers at risk of losing their land rights and being coopted by agribusiness interests serving the food export market.

EVs from Everest? Chinese lithium find in Himalayas raises concerns over water By: Abhaya Raj Joshi [08 Mar 2022]
– Chinese scientists claim to have found a “super large” deposit of lithium near Mount Everest.
– While reports suggest the deposits are far from the core area of the world’s tallest mountain, the prospect of mining them raises concerns about the impact on water sources, an expert told Mongabay.
– The scientist who led the team that discovered the deposit said more research is needed before a final judgment can be made on the viability of mining in the area.

‘Small-scale fishers have a Ph.D. in the ocean’: Q&A with Vatosoa Rakotondrazafy By: Malavika Vyawahare [08 Mar 2022]
– Traditional fishers along Madagascar’s coastline are grappling with falling fish stocks, cyclones, and competition from industrial trawlers, mostly owned by foreigners.
– In an attempt to better manage the country’s marine wealth and secure local fishers’ rights, communities banded together to form Mihari, a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) that leans heavily on traditional ocean knowledge.
– As Mihari’s national coordinator for six years Vatosoa Rakotondrazafy supported a campaign to reserve fishing areas for small scale fishers and helped create a space for women to fully participate in decision-making.
– She spoke with Mongabay recently about the challenges facing fishing communities, their depth of marine knowledge, and the prospects for securing their fishing rights.

Indigenous-led report warns against ‘simplistic take on conservation’ By: Sheryl Lee Tian Tong [08 Mar 2022]
– To deal with climate change and biodiversity loss effectively and equitably, conservation needs to adopt a human rights-based approach, according to a new report co-authored by Indigenous and community organizations across Asia.
– Unlike spatial conservation targets such as “30 by 30,” a rights-based approach would recognize the ways in which Indigenous people lead local conservation efforts, and prioritize their tenure rights in measuring conservation success.
– Without tenure rights, strict spatial conservation targets could lead to human rights abuses, widespread evictions of Indigenous communities across Asia, and high resettlement costs, the report warned.
– Also without tenure rights, the inflow of money into nature-based solutions such as carbon offsets and REDD+ projects could also result in massive land grabs instead of benefiting local communities.

Campaigners against dog meat trade take on one Indonesian city at a time By: Eko Widianto [07 Mar 2022]
– An estimated 7% of Indonesia’s 270 million people eat dog meat, a practice the World Health Organization has linked to the spread of rabies.
– Dog Meat Free Indonesia, an advocacy group, is campaigning city by city to get authorities to crack down on the trade, appealing to animal welfare, public health, and religious sensibilities.
– Authorities at the national and subnational levels have in recent years responded by issuing regulations effectively banning the sale of dog meat for human consumption.

In destroying the Amazon, big agribusiness is torching its own viability By: Sarah Brown [07 Mar 2022]
– A new study has found that the transition zone between the Amazon and Cerrado in the northeast of Brazil has heated up significantly and become drier in the past two decades.
– The research points to deforestation in the Amazon and global climate changes as factors prolonging the dry season and warming up the region, leaving it susceptible to severe droughts and forest fires.
– Ironically, the changes being driven by the intensified agricultural activity are rendering the region less suitable for crop cultivation.
– The authors of the new study say there needs to be a balance of sustainable agricultural solutions and an environmentally focused political agenda to protect the region’s ecosystems, its economy, and its people.

Fate of mine, plantation concessions revoked by Indonesia to be finalized soon By: Hans Nicholas Jong [07 Mar 2022]
– The revocation process for hundreds of logging, plantation and mining concessions across Indonesia will be finalized by the end of March, the government says.
– A newly established task force will allow the affected concession holders to dispute the grounds for the revocation, given the legal confusion and uncertainty spawned by the abrupt and one-sided announcement.
– Experts warn this “clarification” process opens up room for corruption, while also giving companies time to speed up the exploitation of the land while the revocations remain non-binding.
– They also point out that the local and Indigenous peoples who also claim ancestral rights to many of these concessions continue to be sidelined from the process of determining the fate of the land.

‘Prospect of existence’: Nameless grasshopper sparks taxonomic debate By: Rachel Teng Ruiqi [07 Mar 2022]
– Researchers’ failed attempt to describe a new-to-science species of grasshopper based only on photographs has prompted a debate over established taxonomic convention.
– The grasshopper was photographed in northern Peru in 2008, and researchers from Croatia have since had their attempts to formally describe it rejected by journal after journal.
– In response to what they saw as an “arbitrary” process, the researchers wrote a paper on the challenges of describing a species from only photographs, arguing that conventions should change in an era of biodiversity loss.
– “If a living specimen is never found, it will remain a curiosity, suspended between existence and the prospect of existence,” said lead author Niko Kasalo.

Globally acclaimed community forest groups in Nepal say new rules threaten their autonomy By: Abhaya Raj Joshi [07 Mar 2022]
– Community forestry groups in Nepal say the government is going beyond its authority to introduce new rules that would impact how they make their livelihood from forests.
– The groups say the proposed regulation undermines their autonomy, including by requiring them to allocate half of their commercial timber for sale to the government.
– The groups have shelved protests following talks with the government, but say they will return to the streets if officials fail to heed their demands.

In plan for African wildlife corridors, there’s more than one elephant in the room By: Ryan Truscott [07 Mar 2022]
– An ambitious plan by a conservation NGO calls for linking up elephant habitats throughout East and Southern Africa by establishing wildlife corridors.
– But the “Room to Roam” plan, still at the conceptual stage, faces the difficult challenge of getting the agreement of thousands of private, traditional and public landowners.
– Other conservationists say the plan by the International Fund for Animal Welfare, while the ideal to work toward, fails to address how it would tackle human-elephant conflict or why landowners should go along.
– Savanna elephants are now restricted to just 14% of their former range, often isolated pockets in national parks, forest reserves and wildlife conservancies.

An Indigenous basket-weaving tradition keeps a Philippine forest alive By: Keith Anthony Fabro [06 Mar 2022]
– Traditional handicrafts like the Pala’wan Indigenous people’s tingkep woven baskets are deeply tied to local ecosystems; experts increasingly understand that supporting traditional practices can aid conservation by creating incentives for keeping forests intact.
– Efforts to support tingkep weavers have been undercut by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has dried up tourism in Palawan as well as reduced disposable income for many potential buyers, dramatically slashing the demand for the handicrafts.
– At the same time, climate change is already affecting the forests from which tingkep weavers gather materials.

As rising seas destroy Ghana’s coastal communities, researchers warn against a seawall-only solution By: Erica Ayisi [04 Mar 2022]
– Some 37% of Ghana’s coastal land was lost to erosion and flooding between 2005 and 2017.
– Severe storm surges flooded several communities in 2021, prompting the evacuation of thousands of people.
– Research indicates around 340 million people worldwide will be affected by global warming-fueled sea level rise by the middle of the century. Ghana’s government is responding to the growing crisis by fortifying some coastal areas with seawalls, but researchers say relying on seawalls alone may do more harm than good.
– This story was produced with support from the Pulitzer Center.

El Salvador declares rare ‘red alert’ amid surge in forest fires By: Maxwell Radwin [04 Mar 2022]
– In the first two months of the year, there were more than 20 forest fires in protected areas and buffer zones across El Salvador, often in places that are not usually threatened.
– Drought attributed to climate change, as well as irresponsible agricultural practices like slash and burn, are worsening the rate of fires in the small Central American country.
– Conservationists have called on the government to improve its firefighting budget and dedicate more resources to educating farmers about fire risks.

Cold case: Half-hearted prosecution lets ivory traffickers escape in Uganda By: Mongabay [04 Mar 2022]
– More than three years since Ugandan authorities seized a shipment of nearly 4 tons of elephant ivory and pangolin scales, no one has been prosecuted for the trafficking attempt.
– Two Vietnamese nationals were arrested in the bust, but they vanished after being granted bail.
– Wildlife trade investigators have questioned the commitment of the Ugandan authorities to pursue the case, saying their efforts to find the suspects since then appear half-hearted at best.
– They add the failure to prosecute this case is a missed opportunity to break up a major trafficking network moving wildlife parts from East and Central Africa to Southeast Asia.

Microplastics plus organic pollutants equals 10 times the toxicity, study finds By: Elizabeth Claire Alberts [04 Mar 2022]
– A new study has found that interactions between microplastics and organic pollutants in aquatic environments can increase the toxicity of microplastics by a factor of 10.
– The researchers found that some “weathered” microplastics tended to absorb and release more contaminants than pristine microplastics, posing a threat to human health if these microplastics are ingested.
– Nations this week agreed to negotiate a global treaty that addresses the entire life cycle of plastics in an effort to suppress the harm it does to the environment and human health.

From humble roots, a restoration plan in Brazil aims for 1.5m hectares of forest By: Sibélia Zanon [04 Mar 2022]
– A program to restore forest cover in a watershed area that serves São Paulo and other urban centers has restored 5,000 hectares (12,400 acres) since 2016.
– The Conservador da Mantiqueira program includes 425 municipalities in the Mantiqueira Mountains in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais.
– The program was inspired by the smaller Conservador das Águas project in the municipality of Extrema, Minas Gerais state, which has planted more than 2 million native trees since it started in 2005, and pioneered the use of payment for ecosystem services (PES) in Brazil.
– The Mantiqueira Mountains watershed, part of the Atlantic Forest, is the source of the largest rivers supplying water to southeastern Brazil’s major cities.

Can we save coral reefs? | Problem Solved By: Mike DiGirolamo [04 Mar 2022]
– Since the 1950s the world has lost half of its coral reef ecosystems.
– The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that with 1.5°C (2.7°F) of warming above pre-industrial levels we could lose up to 90% of the world’s coral reefs.
– This amount of warming could happen in as little as six years.
– Experts say there’s still time to save coral reefs, but it’ll require swiftly addressing the three largest impacts to reefs: land-based pollution, overfishing and, most importantly, climate change.

Palm oil and pulpwood the usual suspects as Papua deforestation persists By: Hans Nicholas Jong [04 Mar 2022]
– Indonesia’s Papua region lost total forest area the size of Manhattan last year, with much of the deforestation attributed to pulpwood and palm oil companies, according to a new report.
– Using satellite imagery and on-the-ground investigations, environmental NGO Pusaka recorded 5,810 hectares (14,357 acres) of deforestation in the region.
– One observer says this continued loss of forest highlights the disconnect between the Indonesian government’s rhetoric about tackling deforestation and what it actually allows to happen on the ground.

Forest enterprise in Mexico attempts to present opportunities for Indigenous communities By: Agustín del Castillo [03 Mar 2022]
– In the state of Jalisco, northwest Mexico, the Wixárika community of San Sebastián Teponahuaxtlán is attempting to use the forest sustainably to create development opportunities for inhabitants.
– The state government and the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR) are supporting projects that encourage forest conservation while providing income generating opportunities for the Indigenous Wixárika and O’dam communities.
– The area is home to Jalisco’s largest forest reserves with some 680,000 hectares (1,680,300 acres) of temperate, dense and arid forest in the state’s ten northernmost municipalities.


Revealed: Timber giant quietly converts Congo logging sites to carbon schemes by Gloria Pallares [03/03/2022]
‘I am pro-mining’: Indigenous opposition to Philippine mine project falters by Bong S. Sarmiento [02/28/2022]
Bridges in the sky carry sloths to safety in Costa Rica by Monica Pelliccia [02/28/2022]
In a biodiversity haven, mining drives highest ever recorded levels of mercury by John C. Cannon [02/28/2022]