New green building material could cut wood demand in China, India
New green building material could cut wood demand in China, India
July 31, 2006
Australian researchers have developed a strong, lightweight building material that they believe could serve as the base for “green construction” in countries like as China and India.
Dr Obada Kayali and Mr Karl Shaw of the University of New South Wales have developed building materials that can be manufactured entirely from waste fly ash, a fine powder that is a byproduct of coal-burning power plants. China generates an estimated 200 million metric tons of the substance a year, while India produces about 100 million metric tons.
The researchers say that their “unique manufacturing method traps any harmful chemicals, creating an eco-friendly construction material that saves on construction costs and reduces generation of greenhouse gases.” Further, the building materials are at least twenty percent lighter and stronger than comparable products made from clay, and take less time to manufacture.
Rainforest logs in Gabon. Photo by R. Butler
Japan depletes Borneo’s rainforests; China remains largest log importer Almost three quarters of Japan’s tropical timber imports come from the endangered rainforests of Borneo according to figures from the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Meanwhile, ITTO says that China remains, by a large margin, the largest consumer of tropical logs.
China’s timber imports surge in 2006 According to China Customs, China’s timber imports surged during the first quarter of 2006. Log imports increased 18 percent to 8.1 million cubic meters. China customs valued these imports at $897.42 million.
Timber hungry China moves into Africa China, as the fastest growing economy in the world, is poised to make significant impacts on the global market and the global environment, especially with its expanding involvement with nations rich in natural resources but deficient in economic and political stability. Nowhere is this more apparent than in Africa where China has rapidly bolstered its ties in recent years with the majority of the continent’s 54 nations.
China’s Olympics may destroy New Guinea’s rainforests Construction for the 2008 Olympics in China may fuel deforestation in New Guinea according to an article published last week in the Jakarta Post.
China fuels illegal logging in Burma A new report, launched today by Global Witness at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club in Bangkok , “A Choice for China — Ending the destruction of Burma’s northern frontier forests” , details shocking new evidence of the massive illicit plunder of Burma’s forests by Chinese logging companies. Much of the logging takes place in forests that form part of an area said to be “very possibly the most bio-diverse, rich, temperate area on earth
Illegal Logging Link between Indonesia and China Rampant smuggling of illegal timber from Indonesia to China is a billion dollar trade threatening the last remaining intact tropical forests in the Asia-Pacific region. A new report released by EIA/Telapak, entitled “The Last Frontier”, exposes the international criminal syndicates behind the massive looting of merbau trees from Indonesia’s Papua Province. Merbau, a valuable hardwood used mainly for flooring, is being smuggled out of Papua at a rate of around 300 000 cubic metres of logs every month to feed China’s timber processing industry. China’s economic boom has led to it becoming the largest buyer of illegal timber in the world.
China and India are the world’s largest importers of wood. Together, the two countries import more than 10 million cubic meters of tropical logs per year (China: 7.3 million, India: 3 million) and still more timber from non-tropical countries — especially Russia. In recent years, China, in particular, has come under fire from environmental groups for driving the destruction of biologically rich rainforests in southeast Asia, Africa, and Papua New Guinea by demanding tropical hardwood for construction.
A release from the University of New South Wales appears below.
Laying the foundations for a green industry
University of New South Wales
Australian university researchers have developed a strong, lightweight building material that they believe could generate a thriving new “green” industry for countries such as China and India.
Coal-burning power plants spend millions of dollars disposing of waste fly ash, a fine powder loaded with toxic chemicals. An estimated 200 million tonnes of the byproduct is generated in China each year, much of it sent to waste disposal sites on increasingly scarce land and it is also responsible for serious air and water pollution.
In India about 100 million tonnes of fly ash is generated each year. The Indian Government passed a law in October 2005 stating that a minimum of 25 percent of fly ash must be used in the manufacture of clay bricks for use in construction activities within a 50 km radius of coal burning thermal power plants. There are also restrictions on the excavation of top soil for the manufacture of bricks.
In the Middle East there are very few coal fired power stations and there is an acute shortage of durable building materials because of the lack of suitable clay, aggregate and sand. Quality building materials are imported at considerable cost. Thus, there is a definite market for high-quality light-weight building materials in the Middle East.
Dr Obada Kayali and Mr Karl Shaw of the University of New South Wales’ Australian Defence Force Academy (UNSW@ADFA) have developed bricks and building aggregate that can be manufactured entirely from waste fly ash.
They say their unique manufacturing method traps any harmful chemicals, creating an eco-friendly construction material that saves on construction costs and reduces generation of greenhouse gases.
Flash Bricks are 28 percent lighter and 24 percent stronger than comparable clay bricks while the aggregate, Flashag, can be used to make concrete that is 22 percent lighter and 20 percent stronger than standard products. This results in lighter structures, shallower foundations, cheaper transportation, and less usage of cement and steel reinforcement. This also results in more slender building components and hence, larger rentable space.
They also generate fewer emissions during manufacture as they take less time in the kiln to manufacture than clay bricks.
“Fly ash comes straight out of the power station and can be fed straight into the brick manufacturing process,” says Dr Kayali. “In China it is difficult to find a clay quarry or aggregate quarry close to a city. Many brick plants are idle due to lack of clay yet most power stations have some form of brick plant close by.”
“There is growing interest in the country in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing chemical pollutants and dust emissions and stopping the alienation of the land. Flash Bricks and Flashag overcome many of these problems.”
Neil Simpson of NewSouth Innovations (NSi), the university’s commercialisation arm, says the products had won widespread praise from structural engineers.
“Because Flashag results in lightweight yet sturdy concrete, it can be used effectively in high-rises where smaller structural columns are needed to maximise floor space and in concrete bridges requiring longer spans.”
The Fly Ash technology has two patents and licenses have been issued for the UK and US markets. NSi is seeking interest from companies wanting to develop the technology for China, Japan, Southeast Asia, Europe and India.