January 10, 2014
WONDERFUL CREATURES SERIES|
Most animal species on Earth we never see. In fact, we have no idea what they look like, much less how spectacular they are. This disconnect likely leads to an inability in the general public to relate to biodiversity and, by extension, the loss of it. In this series, we take a deeper look at these unseen creatures, highlighting the bizarre appearances and incredible lives of our fellow animals. In exploring this riot of diversity we need to remember that we have barely scratched the surface of understanding the living world
A Stenus beetle. Photo by: Ross Piper.
Rove beetles are among the most diverse animals on the planet, with around 56,000 species currently described. Amongst this multitude of species is a dazzling array of adaptations perhaps best illustrated by the genus Stenus. These beetles, with their bulbous eyes and slender bodies are often found near water running swiftly over the wet ground and clambering among the vegetation.
As charming as they appear, Stenus are fierce predators, able to make short work of smaller arthropods, such as springtails. When they are within range of a suitable victim they employ their unique, secret weapon: the floor of their mouth (the labium) is part of a telescopic tube that can be extended at lightning speed under blood pressure.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the head of a Stenus beetle showing the labium. Photo by: David Spears/Ross Piper.
At the business end of this telescoping structure is an arrangement of pads, bristles and adhesive-secreting pores, all of which help to securely snag the prey. The labium is then retracted to bring the victim within range of the sickle-like mandibles. This adaptation is particularly useful when the beetle is clambering around in vegetation. It is thought this amazing way of capturing food evolved due to the rapid reflexes of prey, such as springtail. The grasping appendage is so thin and can be extended at such speed that a springtail probably does not have sufficient time to react and hurl itself clear using its flexible 'tail.'
As if their incredible mouthparts were not enough, Stenus beetles have another incredible adaptation. Being so small and light they will often take to water. Supported by the surface tension, they scull along using their legs at a speed of 2–3 cm per second. However, at the slightest sign of danger they have an explosive turn of speed thanks to a substance called stenusin secreted by their anal glands, a droplet of which is dabbed on the surface of the water. This compound is very hydrophobic and it spreads with such force on the water the beetle is propelled forwards at a rate of 45–70 cm per second, extremely rapid for an animal less than 5mm long. If the beetle was the size of a human it would be traveling at 600–900 km hour (370-560 miles hour). The beetle can do a number of these super-fast skims before its stenusin reserves are exhausted.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of pads, bristles and adhesive-secreting pores at the end of the labium. Photo by: David Spears/Ross Piper.
SEM image of Stenus beetle. Photo by: David Spears/Ross Piper.
SEM detail of Stenus beetle head. Photo by: David Spears/Ross Piper.
Dr. Ross Piper is a zoologist and author and has recently presented on the BBC/Smithsonian TV production, Wild Burma: Nature's Lost Kingdom, soon to be shown in the USA. You can read an interview with Ross Piper here: Animal Earth: exploring the hidden biodiversity of our planet.
- Bauer T and Pfeiffer M. Shooting springtails with a sticky rod the flexible hunting behavior of Stenus comma (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) and the counter-strategies of its prey. Animal Behaviour 1991; 41:819-828
- Betz O. Comparative studies on the predatory behaviour of Stenus spp. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): the significance of its specialized labial apparatus. Journal of Zoology 1998;244:527-544.
- Betz O. Life forms and hunting behaviour of some Central European Stenus species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Applied Soil Ecology 1998;9:69-74.
- Betz O. A behavioural inventory of adult Stenus species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Journal of Natural History 1999;33:1691-1712.
- Betz O and Fuhrmann S. Life history traits in different life forms of predaceous Stenus beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), living in waterside environments. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 2001;51:371-393.
Animal Earth: exploring the hidden biodiversity of our planet
(12/03/2013) Most of the species on Earth we never see. In fact, we have no idea what they look like, much less how spectacular they are. In general, people can identify relatively few of their backyard species, much less those of other continents. This disconnect likely leads to an inability in the general public to relate to biodiversity and, by extension, the loss of it. One of the most remarkable books I have read is a recent release that makes serious strides to repair that disconnect and affirm the human bond with biodiversity. Animal Earth: The Amazing Diversity of Living Creatures written by Ross Piper, a zoologist with the University of Leeds, opens up the door to discovery.
Newly discovered beetles construct private homes out of leaf holes and feces
(11/12/2013) Scientists have discovered two new species of leaf beetles in southern India that display a novel way of using leaf holes and their fecal pellets to build shelters – a nesting behavior previously not known among leaf beetles. Discovered in the forests of the Western Ghats in the states of Karnataka and Kerala, the scientists have named these pin-head sized leaf beetles Orthaltica syzygium and Orthaltica terminalia, after the plants they feed on: Syzygium species (e.g., the Java plum) and Terminalia species (e.g., the flowering murdah).
Beetles in the spotlight: a new species of burying beetle from the Solomon Islands Archipelago
(11/07/2013) If you thought of the little beetle that you saw the other day as just a ‘regular one’ then this might interest you. Scientists from the University of Alaska discovered Nicrophorus efferens, a new species of burying beetle from Solomon Islands. Studying six adult specimens borrowed from the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Hawaii (BPBM), Dr Sikes and Tonya Mousseau describe the new species in a detailed taxonomic assessment published in the journal Zookeys, and how it differs from two closely related species of the Solomon Islands.
New species of beetle discovered in megacity
(10/30/2013) When imagining the discovery of a new species, most people conjure thoughts of intrepid explorers, battling the odds in remote rainforests. But this needn't be the case, at least according to a new study published in Zookeys. The study reports the discovery of a new species of water beetle in the heart of the 10th largest megacity in the world: Manila, Philippines.
Small invertebrates could be key to uncovering the mysteries of killer amphibian fungus
(10/22/2013) In 2004, the first-ever Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) reviewed all 5,743 amphibian species known to science and concluded that 32% were threatened with extinction - a number far exceeding corresponding figures for birds and mammals (12 to 23% respectively). In addition to the usual culprits of climate change and habitat destruction, a startling 92.5% of amphibians listed as Critically Endangered were found to be undergoing enigmatic declines linked to an unexpected perpetrator - the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd).